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Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are an energy-efficient and eco-friendly form of heating that extracts heat from the ground for home or commercial heating systems.
They can be a great way to save on monthly energy costs by utilizing renewable geothermal energy. However, GSHPs have disadvantages, including expensive installation and maintenance costs, intensive installation processes, reliance on soil temperature and other factors, space limitations, and more.
- Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) offer many advantages, such as energy efficiency, eco-friendliness, and long lifespans but have a high initial cost of installation.
- GSHPs require extensive installation involving pipes and associated equipment buried underground in the form of a loop system which can be incredibly disruptive to existing worksites and introduce extra costs depending on local ground conditions.
- Government incentives exist for installing GSHP systems that may provide financial relief over time; however, this could take some years before savings become substantial when weighing up initial investment costs.
- Despite potential long-term cost savings due to improved efficiency and decreased running costs, an essential factor to consider is whether or not alternative heating methods would be more appropriate depending on specific usage needs requiring constant temperature control to get maximum bang for your buck.
How Ground Source Heat Pumps Work
Ground source heat pumps, or geothermal heat pumps (GSHP), use the constant year-round temperature of the ground to transfer heat from a lower to a higher temperature. GSHPs utilize two distinct kinds of closed-loop and open-loop systems to operate.
- Closed loop GSHPs are available in vertical, horizontal, and pond/lake designs where the loops are buried into the ground using some form of a trenching system;
- While an open loop relies on direct connections with bodies of water, such as wells or reservoirs. Which groundwater is circulated for cooling purposes before being reinjected into the last place.
The piping circuit within each type comprises a three-part cylindrical unit. It contains refrigerant lines, insulated copper pipes filled with antifreeze solution and an outer tube that conducts warmth from the earth.
The refrigerant line evaporates when exposed to underground temperatures and condenses back inside the coil when heated by a compressor. Allowing efficient energy exchange between the building’s interior and outdoor environment.
Different Types Of GSHPs (open Loop And Closed Loop)
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) provide an effective and eco-friendly way of heating and cooling a property. Depending on the local geothermal sources, GSHP systems have been classified into three categories by ASHRAE: groundwater, surface water, and ground.
- Open-loop GSHPs use groundwater as their heat source or sink; this water is pumped from wells and discharged elsewhere after it has passed through the system.
The main advantage of this system is that no piping needs to be installed underground; however, it does introduce some environmental problems related to water usage because the same access point can only sometimes be used indefinitely due to diminishing resources in some areas.
Additionally, proper maintenance must be performed regularly to maximize the efficiency of such a system.
- Closed-loop GSHPs circulate an antifreeze solution through pipes buried in one of four basic configurations. Horizontal, vertical, pond/lake loops, or open trenches depending on the site’s space constraints.
Comparison Of Ground Source And Air Source Heat Pumps
Comparing air and ground source heat pumps can help you determine which type is best suited for your specific needs.
Ground source heat pumps have superior performance to air source heat pumps, providing higher energy efficiency and durability over the years. According to a comparative study conducted between the two types of systems, ground-source heat pumps had up to 20% better efficiency in terms of power consumption when heating a home than air-source ones.
Moreover, it was found that GSHPs last much longer than ASHPs, too, with some ground units resulting in potential savings after 15+ years, while some air units require replacing after 7–8 years of use.
The reason for this improved performance is due to the way GSHPs work. Instead of using outdoor air, they rely on underground groundwater or soil, which maintains steady temperatures throughout all seasons, thus allowing them to cool and warm more efficiently despite external weather conditions.
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) generally require more materials and labor than air source pumps, which usually means higher installation costs. Moreover, a GSHP system will often need to be custom-designed depending on the type of property.
This can add significantly to the cost of installing a GSHP. On average, a quality ground source heat pump for large homes could easily cost upwards of $45,000 or more for all components including installation fees.
The actual equipment involved is also expensive with prices ranging as high as several thousand dollars and even more if adding features like zone control systems and additional thermostats.
Additional expenses may include charges for permits issued by local governments in order to install the necessary piping underground which can further increase costs due to the complex material requirements needed during construction work such as special tapping machines for boring multiple holes into the ground that house pipework containing fluids heated by electricity .
If you’re looking to cut down on these high upfront installation costs associated with GSHPs, it may be worth considering purchasing pre-engineered systems from major suppliers rather than ordering a bespoke system from smaller manufacturers who might charge extra engineering fees or provide only limited support services upon installation completion.
Prefabricated loop fields are available commercially that allow easier deployment without any site excavation or long pipe runs but at a premium cost compared to all components bought separately. Thus personal research would still be necessary before opting in this direction
Ground source heat pumps provide an excellent alternative to traditional heating systems, with an efficiency rating of up to 400%. This is achieved by converting one unit of electricity into four or more equivalent units of heat that can be used in households.
As well as being highly efficient, GSHPs are also generally regarded as the most energy-efficient way to provide air conditioning and hot water for a home or business environment.
Unlike air-source heat pump A/C units, which lose efficiency in extreme weather conditions because of temperature fluctuations, ground-source heat pumps operate much better over time, using the stable temperatures found deep underground.
Ground source technology uses this consistency in temperature combined with minimal noise levels while operating, significantly reducing energy loss during extended periods where conventional boilers have traditionally been used.
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) and air source heat pumps have differing lifespans, with GSHPs typically lasting much longer. GSHPs are known for their durability and long-term performance; on average, they can last 20 to 25 years.
Compare this to the average lifespan of most air source heat pumps, which generally lasts only 15 to 25 years. This places ground source as one of the best options for maintaining a reliable home heating system over time.
The longevity of a GSHP is partially due to its lower maintenance requirements than an air pump system; however, it also depends heavily on factors like installation quality and proper maintenance routines.
Air pump systems usually require routine maintenance almost every other year. At the same time, GSHPs may need regular tuning up around every five years or so depending upon conditions below ground that could affect their performance in the long run, such as soil temperature changes or contact damage from underground construction projects, tree roots etc.
Again, proper installation procedures will go a long way in helping protect any home heating investment over time when done correctly by qualified professional installing organizations certified by National Environmental Balancing Bureau, like ones endorsed by ENERGY STAR®. ENERGY STAR® certified products and services that adhere to energy efficiency standards set by The US Department Of Energy
Advantages Of Ground Source Heat Pumps
Ground source heat pumps provide energy efficiency, eco-friendliness, long lifespans and cost savings, making them an excellent renewable heating choice.
Ground source heat pumps are an energy-efficient heating solution that can provide significant cost savings over time. They use 25 to 50% less electricity than other heating systems, making them the most energy-efficient type of heat pumps available.
Also, their ability to convert one unit of electricity into four or more branches of heat makes GSHPs more efficient and economical than other systems.
By providing consistent temperature control and reducing overall energy demand, ground-source GSHPs offer environmental benefits too. They’re low carbon emissions that don’t produce on-site pollution and typically have a smaller carbon footprint than alternatives like air conditioning systems.
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are a highly sustainable and eco-friendly alternative to conventional heating and cooling systems. Geothermal energy is the primary power behind GSHPs, making them an environmentally friendly option compared to typical fuel sources such as coal and other fossil fuels.
The refrigerant used in ground source heat pumps is not harmful, eliminating another common environmental hazard associated with HVAC alternatives.
The great advantage that GSHPs have over traditional air-source or electric solutions lies in their ability to take advantage of the naturally occurring difference between the above-ground air temperature and subsurface soil temperatures from which they draw their energy, something which contributes significantly towards its high-efficiency ratings that tend to be more consistent throughout variable atmospheric conditions all year round.
Ground source heat pumps are exceptionally durable and reliable systems lasting up to 50 years, far longer than the average lifetime of other heating sources such as combustion-based furnaces.
This advantage is partly due to the components used in GSHPs, such as compressors and evaporators, made with corrosion-resistant materials like stainless steel. They also require minimal maintenance; a few annual checkups ensure the system stays in peak condition over its long lifespan by replacing worn-out parts before they cause breakdowns or performance reductions.
This durability translates into significant cost savings for homeowners or business owners because these systems hold more value for extended periods than those with shorter lifespans.
Additionally, there will be no need for frequent replacement costs incurred from traditional fossil fuel-based heating systems.
Cost Savings In The Long Term
Ground source heat pumps are an excellent investment for those seeking to lower their monthly energy bills in the long term. GSHPs offer highly efficient performance, reducing energy consumption and costs associated with home heating and cooling.
Thanks to incentives from government agencies such as Energy Star, installing ground source heat pump systems may be eligible for rebates and tax credits, making them even more cost-efficient solutions in the long run.
Additionally, suppose electricity rates rise by 10% annually (which they often do). In that case, ground-source heat pumps will continue to yield savings far into the future that can span up to 20% below average utility billings.
Significant cost savings are difficult to obtain through any other heating system without sacrificing comfort or efficiency at high costs due to seasonal inflation.
Disadvantages Of Ground Source Heat Pumps
It includes high initial costs, a disruptive installation process, space limitations and dependence on the ground temperature and conditions.
High Initial Costs
Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) offer numerous energy-efficient and eco-friendly benefits. Still, one of the main drawbacks is that they come with significantly higher upfront costs than conventional air-source heat pumps.
GSHPs require fairly extensive installation, other components, such as pipes and associated equipment, must be buried underground in a loop system, making them difficult to install.
On top of this, the cost for an outdoor loop usually accounts for around half of the total installation costs, at least $15000 on average for residential installations. So this inevitably drives up the overall expenditure considerably compared to more traditional heating systems that rely exclusively on commuted energy sources.
Cost savings can undoubtedly be achieved over time due to improved efficiency and lower running costs; however, these savings may take some years before they become substantial enough when measured against the initial investment required from homeowners.
It should also be noted that ground conditions can significantly impact those hoping to install a GSHP. Groundwater levels, geographic positioning, soil type and temperature must be considered before starting any work, which could add unexpected expenses down the line.
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are becoming an increasingly popular alternative home-heating option, due to their eco-friendly benefits and potential cost savings in the long term.
Disruptive Installation Process
Installing a ground source heat pump can involve considerable digging. Depending on the type of system installed and ground conditions, this might include trenches several feet deep and as long as 100m, which can be disruptive to your property’s landscaping and lifestyle during installation.
Extensive pre-planning is key: it’s essential to factor in the location of buried pipes or lines when considering reshaping your garden, for example; otherwise, disruption may require excavating again later.
In addition, proper sizing of the system should also form part of the planning process; an undersized unit will require frequent cycling leading to higher energy bills and premature component failure, while oversized components may not run at their most efficient capacity.
Space Limitations: Unsuitability For Compact Yards
Ground source heat pumps require a significant amount of outdoor space for installation. Open loop systems typically need several hundred feet of land; the exact size depends on the home’s desired heating output and ground temperature.
For closed-loop models, the minimum area necessary to install the pipes is 1,000-2,500 square feet for a standard residential property in temperate climates. These figures can dramatically increase for more significant properties or colder areas with lower ground temperatures.
When confronted with limited outdoor space, these large footprint requirements can be challenging for some homeowners.
Fortunately, there are alternatives to ground source heat pumps that may be more suitable depending on individual circumstances and geographical location; air source heat pumps (ASHPs) use electricity to extract warmth from the outside air rather than underground energy reservoirs and require much less surface area for installation.
Dependence On Ground Temperature And Conditions
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) rely on the temperature of the ground to function efficiently. The earth provides a reliable and steady energy supply in many areas, meaning that GSHP systems can effectively heat buildings.
That said, fluctuations in air temperatures or ground conditions may limit GSHP capacity and its efficiency. Ground temperature has a powerful impact on open loop systems because their performance depends more on soil temperature since it’s continually pumped out from the exact location each cycle.
In addition, problems such as groundwater flooding or changes in soil consistency due to construction work can disrupt ground source heat pump performance over time. This emphasizes why close monitoring and regular maintenance by qualified personnel are essential for ensuring year-round reliability with GSHPs.
Maintenance And Troubleshooting
Proper maintenance and troubleshooting of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) are crucial for their effective functioning. As with any mechanical system, GSHPs can experience common operational issues that need to be addressed, such as low refrigerant levels or clogged filters.
Neglecting to address these problems early on can lead to decreased energy efficiency and even long-term damage, which could require costly repairs in the future.
In addition, regular maintenance helps reduce potential breakdowns and saves owner’s money in repair costs by catching issues before they become more serious.
Some recommended steps during an inspection include:
- Checking thermostats.
- Flushing cooling lines if required.
- Cleaning or replacing air filters.
- Tightening wire connections.
- Conducting safety checks on components like sensors and instruments.
- Inspecting outdoor condensers for debris like leaves or dirt particles that may have accumulated over time.
- Testing Oil Samples (if applicable).
- Inspecting Auxiliary Parts, including pipsetters, relief valves, catches’ tanks etc.
- Removing dust buildup from motor parts if needed, performing temperature tests, and ensuring pressure readings remain at optimal levels.
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are usually relatively quiet. However, noise may be created during installation or depending on how a particular GSHP is set up.
A traditional air-source heat pump typically produces noise in 40 to 65 decibels, while ground-source systems are much lower, potentially as low as 20 to 25 dB.
This would be similar to an office conversation or trim appliance noise level. When one considers that regular discussions occur at around 60 dBs, it’s clear that GSHPs are far quieter than other heating and cooling options when installed correctly, with best practice methods in place to minimize sound transmission levels.
The type of loop system chosen can also affect the final decibel levels a system produces. Open loops make more sound/noise than closed loop systems due to customers using water pumps rather than submersible ones, which increase sound levels significantly outdoors.
Ground Source Heat Pumps (GSHPs) can provide a net advantage to the environment when properly installed, maintained and operated. GSHPs are attractive due to their excellent efficiency; they typically generate up to four times more energy than they consume.
Additionally, while air source heat pumps use an environmentally harmful refrigerant known as HFC-124a, GSHPs rely on non-toxic propylene glycol or brine for heating.
The long-term environmental impact of GSHPs is framed by its initial installation process, which requires drilling boreholes where water is circulated through pipes embedded deep below the frost line to tap the earth’s stored heat supply.
Addressing GSHP Disadvantages: Potential Solutions
The installation process of ground source heat pumps can be complicated, however there are solutions designed to address some of the common disadvantages associated with them.
Professional Vs. DIY Installation
Advantages of Professional Installation of a GSHP (Ground Source Heat Pump):
- Expert Assessment: Professional technicians can assess the soil conditions and determine the ideal installation location for maximum efficiency.
- Efficient Energy Transmission: Technicians consider energy loss during transmission through piping.
- Specialized Equipment: Professionals can access essential specialized equipment like air hammers and vibratory plows, which are necessary for proper pipe burial and minimisation of surface disruption.
- Regulatory Compliance: Professionals are aware of local regulatory codes and permitting requirements. They handle all associated paperwork, ensuring project compliance.
- Warranties and Maintenance: Professional installation often comes with guarantees and maintenance services.
Challenges of DIY Installation of a GSHP:
- Planning Requirement: DIY installation requires extensive planning to minimize costs and comply with local permits and installation depth requirements.
- Risk Factor: Improper pipe placement or inexperienced use of sophisticated machines can lead to costly repairs.
- Licensing Requirements: Certain states require an HVAC license before a homeowner can perform their work on existing systems.
- Cost vs Time Trade-off: Cost savings often end up minimal as DIY installations require special tools like PCBGs (polychlorinated biphenyl ground detectors) and extra labour. Without technical guidance, DIY projects can significantly increase time expenditure.
- Lack of Warranty: DIY projects typically come with something other than the warranty assurances provided by licensed professionals.
Maintenance Tips And Tricks
Proper maintenance of GSHP systems ensures energy efficiency, system performance and lifespan. Professionals should keep the following three tips in mind when servicing such systems:
- Inspect the borehole or ground loop at least once a year to assess for any damages that may impact system performance.
- Check all seals regularly to prevent air infiltration and monitor water quality levels for potential corrosion and clogged pipes due to mineral buildup.
- Regularly check all HVAC equipment components, such as fans, motors, circulators, etc., so they run correctly and efficiently with minimal noise levels from vibration or other factors.
- Perform preventive tests on specific aspects of GSHPs, such as pressure, leakage detection mechanisms etc., to ensure the proper functioning of your heat pump annually before colder weather sets in during winter months.
Statistics collected by the U.S Department of Energy show that basic monitoring techniques like preventative maintenance checks implemented on GSHP installations can lead to a 5-25% improvement in operational efficiency depending upon the type & age of installation compared to a time-to-time service repairs/replacements strategy without preventive maintenance testing regime.
Affordable Alternatives To GSHPs
When it comes to addressing GSHP disadvantages, there are a number of alternative solutions that can be considered.
- These include air-source heat pumps, electric heating options such as baseboard heaters and wall furnaces, solar energy systems for both electricity and hot water heating purposes, and biomass or wood stoves as well.
- Each of these technologies has its own advantages and limitations in terms of efficiency, installation costs, environmental impact, usability etc. For instance Air Source Heat Pumps (ASHPs) offer comparable performance to GSHPs but at lower initial set up costs since they don’t require a ground source exchanger loop; however ASHPs tend to consume more power than their geothermal counterparts because outside temperatures affect their circulation processes more significantly.
- Electric-based home heating systems have high running costs due to higher unit rates charged by the utility providers compared with natural gas or propane fuel consumed by the GSHP system.
- Solar energy systems for residential use are expensive to install but may pay off over time given attractive government subsidies from many federal economic stimulus programs which provide funding incentives on top of renewable energy credits associated with solar PV installations or hot water applications (i.e., rooftop thermal collectors).
Is The Investment Worth It?
A careful evaluation of the long-term costs and benefits will help determine whether a ground-source heat pump investment is worth it.
Cost Vs. Efficiency
Ground source heat pumps are often more expensive to install than traditional heating and cooling systems. Despite a potentially high initial cost, these renewable energy solutions can provide long-term savings due to their superior efficiency.
The size of the home is heated or cooled, and the desired performance levels will affect the costs associated with installing a ground source heat pump; installation fees for tiny homes generally run much lower than those required for larger residences.
Property owners must weigh up factors such as property size and anticipated use against the potential savings from using one of these efficient heating systems, which could be considerable depending on circumstances.
Besides considering space needs and anticipated usage rate, people interested in GSHPs must consider soil temperature requirements and drainage concerns; they should also look into local rebates and incentives related to this type of energy system before making an investment decision.
Potential For Long-term Cost Savings
Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) offer increased comfort levels, reduce energy consumption and heating bills, and are a more eco-friendly form of heating. The initial investment in the GSHP is often higher than traditional gas or oil furnaces because of the installation involved; however, this can save you money in the long run.
Studies have shown that a well-maintained and correctly installed ground source heat pump has an average lifespan of 20 years, far more than most air conditioners. Also, it’s estimated that households with 3500 sq ft living space could save between $1,500 to $2,000 annually by switching to GSHPs compared to other types of heating systems such as electric furnaces or gas furnaces which most likely only offer decreasing cost savings over time due to rising fuel costs.
Apart from the financial benefits associated with using GSHPs, they also generate fewer emissions when compared with oil and gas burners making them much better for overall environmental health.
Effectiveness Of GSHPs
Ground source heat pumps are highly rated for their consistent and efficient performance. These systems can provide steady heating and cooling with slight temperature fluctuation, reducing wasted energy usage.
The GSHP operates most effectively when the external temperature is above freezing, as lower temperatures make heating more difficult. As a result, GSHPs are typically installed in areas with moderate climates or homes that don’t require aggressive cooling.
Additionally, they offer good energy efficiency ratings of up to 600% compared to traditional furnaces, which often have rates downwards of 90-100%.
Regulatory And Policy Considerations
Local and state governments may have specific regulations related to the installation of GSHPs, as well as permits that must be obtained before construction begins.
Permits And Regulations Related To GSHPs
Ground source heat pumps, or GSHPs, are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential for reducing energy costs and providing clean, renewable heating and cooling.
Depending on your state or locality, obtaining the permits needed to install a ground source heat pump can be involved. At a minimum, local government contractors will need to review proposed plans before construction to ensure that no harmful environmental impacts will occur during the installation or operation of the system.
In many cases, additional considerations may have to be taken into account before a permit is approved; for example, in some states, including New York, legal implications associated with district geothermal systems must be considered by local governments before approval is granted.
Additionally, there may be restrictions related to noise limits (especially important when underground drilling is necessary), access requirements and more depending on local geology/groundwater quality regulations, which vary from state to state.
Understanding the specific regulations governing GSHP installations is essential regardless of your jurisdiction’s typical permitting process, as these factors can significantly affect project timelines.
Consumer safety also has been factored into new regulation changes concerning ground source heat pumps since high temperatures pose a risk of fire hazards when misused or without proper ventilation measures and electrical wiring practices outlined in relevant codes.
Rebates And Incentives For Using GSHPs
The installation of GSHPs can be expensive, so many governments have implemented various rebates or incentive schemes to encourage uptake and reduce the cost burden on homeowners.
In the United States, federal energy tax credits may be available where appropriate for up to 30% of the total installed costs (with a $500 cap). Furthermore, some states and localities also provide incentives based on their initiatives.
Seldom are these subsidies enough to cover the entire cost upfront; however, they can facilitate substantial amounts if utilized aptly.
Many utility companies in the US also offer rebates and discounts on equipment and reduced energy bills over time by encouraging customers to switch from traditional heating systems like gas furnaces to more efficient ones like GSHPs.
Depending on their location, the amount authorized for a particular customer may range between U$250-U$1,000.
1. What are the disadvantages of ground source heat pumps?
Ground source heat pumps can be expensive to install and it requires a significant amount of space for efficient operation, since multiple wells must be drilled into the ground in order to generate energy from the surrounding Earth’s thermal energy. Additionally, certain restrictions may also exist if an area is overpopulated or has a lot of rock formations underground that make drilling difficult. Finally, as with all power-consuming appliances noise & vibration production has been known to occur during operations so those need to be taken into considerations before installation as well.
2. Does my property require special qualifications for installing a GSHP?
Yes, your property’s soil composition needs to meet specific criteria in order qualify for such systems–including sufficient depth availability, flat terrain covering minimum surface area and other variables based on what type of layout installed (i.e., horizontal vs vertical). Companies specializing in installation should provide more detailed analysis prior beginning any project(s).
3. Do I have access to authority grants when installing GSHPs?
; Yes depending upon local regulations or incentive programs established within area authority grants could exist help offset upfront expenses associated projects thus reducing upfront cost associated owning/utilizing one these solutions–always check requirements ensuring compliant possible additional qualifying criteria which could effect overall eligibility status before signing anything however carefully reading documentation preventing unintended complications occurring future date/time until application gets completed correctly instead risking entire potential premise being denied due some unknown technicalities being missed along way .
4 . How long do Ground Source Heat Pumps typically last ?
Generally speaking –good quality units should function effectively 10-15 years providing maintenance happens regularly follow manufacturer guidelines what specific system being used . Beyond time frame stated above then lifespan might begin decrease so additional repairs become necessary keep running properly till completely retired replace something else better suited situation present at moment but still always refer manual provided ensure everything understood stop parts getting swapped out regularly through trial/error process either before completion desired level effectiveness achieved wanting achieve end result obtain owners discretion not jeopardize warrantee previously acquired operating produced earlier program runs opts take consider going forward simply making choice easy right
Despite the potential cost savings in the long term and their environmental benefits, ground-source heat pumps have several disadvantages that need to be carefully weighed before investing.
Recap Of GSHP Disadvantages
Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) can have a range of advantages, including energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and cost savings in the long term. Still, there are also some potential pitfalls to consider.
High initial costs, disruptive installation processes, and space limitations as unsuitability for compact yards are common GSHP disadvantages.
In addition, GSHP performances rely on ground temperature fluctuations and ever-changing conditions of the soil beneath the device. Furthermore, noise levels during operation must be considered as they could irritate neighbours or local wildlife.
Finally, careful consideration should be given to their potential environmental impacts, such as water usage and pollution from construction materials used for installation.
Future Trends And Improvements In GSHP Technology
Ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology has become an increasingly popular renewable energy option for heating, cooling, and hot water needs. Advances in GSHP systems continue to move the industry forward by making them more efficient and cost-effective.
One future development is integrating ground-source heat pump systems with other technologies, such as adaptive control algorithms, which allow systems to adjust performance according to external conditions, thus improving efficiency.
Such advanced control strategies also demonstrate significant savings in energy costs over traditional methods. Additionally, new research and development efforts seek to improve the usage of natural resources by leveraging shallow-depth geothermal technology at a larger scale than ever before.